Combo all the Monuments of Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore

Technical organization BACKUP Storico Opera di S. M. del Fiore di Firenze
Provided by BACKUP Storico Opera di S. M. del Fiore di Firenze

Combo all the Monuments of Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore

Overview

IMPORTANT: WARNING! Access WILL NOT BE ALLOWED to those who present themselves without the CONFIRMATION VOUCHER sent by us one business day after the request. The copy of the order and confirmation of payment from the bank ARE NOT VALID for ticket pick-up.

Museo dell'Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore

Entrance tickets for the Museo dell'Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore.

Opening Hours:

9 am - 7:30 pm
Sunday: 9 am - 1,45 pm
Epiphany: 9 am - 1,45 pm
November 1: 9 am - 1,45 pm
December 8: 9 am - 1,45 pm
December 26: 9 am - 1,45 pm

Closure dates:
January 1st, Easter, September 8th, Christmas

Entry allowed up to 40 minutes before closing; accessible to disabled people.

The Dome of Brunelleschi

Entrance tickets for the Dome of the Cathedral of Florence, masterpiece by Filippo Brunelleschi.

Opening Hours:

Monday - Friday: 8,30 am - 7 pm; Saturday: 8:30 am - 5:40 pm
Sunday: closed

Closure dates:
January 1st; Epiphany; Holy Thursday, Friday and Saturday; Easter; June 24th; August 15th, September 8th; November 1st; Monday and Tuesday of the first week of Advent; Christmas and December 26.

Entry allowed up to 40 minutes before closing

Entry at the Porta della Mandorla of the Cathedral (North side)

463 stairs, no lift

Giotto's Bell Tower

Entrance tickets for the Bell Tower of the Cathedral of Florence, masterpiece by Giotto.

Opening Hours:
8:30 am - 7:30 pm; January 6: 8,30 am - 2 pm

Closure dates:
January 1st, Easter, September 8th and Christmas

Entry allowed up to 40 minutes before closing

414 stairs, no lift

The Baptistery of San Giovanni

Entrance tickets for the Baptistery of San Giovanni, of the Cathedral of Florence.

Opening Hours:
12:15 pm - 7 pm; Sunday: 8:30 am - 2 pm; 1st Saturday of the month: 8:30 am - 2 pm
Epiphany: 8:30 - 2 pm
Easter Monday: 8:30 am - 7 pm
April 25: 8:30 am - 7 pm
May 1: 8:30 am - 7 pm
Thursday, Friday, Saturday Holy: 8,30 am - 7 pm
November 1: 8:30 am - 2 pm
December 8: 8:30 - 2 pm
December 26: 8:30 - 2 pm

Closure dates:
January 1st, Easter, September 8th and Christmas

Entry allowed up to 30 minutes before closing

Entry through the North door

The archaeological site of the crypt of Santa Reparata

Entrance tickets for the archaeological site of Santa Reparata, the crypt of the Cathedral of Florence.

Opening Hours:

  • Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday: 10 am - 5 pm
  • Thursday:
  1. May and October: 10 am - 3,30 pm
  2. From July until September: 10 am - 5 pm
  3. other months: 10 am - 4:30 pm
  • Saturday: 10 am - 4,45 pm
  • Sunday: closed

Closure dates:
January 1st; Epiphany; Holy Thursday, Friday and Saturday; Easter; June 24th; August 15th, September 8th; November 1st; Monday and Tuesday of the first week of Advent; Christmas and December 26.

Entry allowed up to 30 minutes before closing

Entry from inside the Duomo, in the nave

Ticket is personal and non transferable.

To collect reserved tickets, client must show the confirmation voucher at the reservations cashier of the Dome of Brunelleschi, 15 minutes before the confirmed time on the date of visit. First available time: 10:00, latest time: 16:30 (Sunday closed). At ticket pick up, staff will inform the opening hours of the monuments and can advise you the priority of visit according to their closure times.

IMPORTANT NOTICE: After successfully completing a reservation, you will receive two e- mails: the copy of your order (immediately after submitting your order) and the confirmation mail (one working day after). In order to receive them, please make sure you insert your e-mail address correctly and check that your anti-spam filter or antivirus are not blocking mails from our address help@waf.it. Special attention for AOL, Comcast and Sbcglobal.net mailbox users.

PLEASE NOTICE: Confirmed time is not always the same time you requested; museum automatically confirms the closest available time (any time) on the same date if requested time is sold out.

Cancellation policy: refund is due only if the monument remains closed during the whole period of validity of the ticket.

IMPORTANT: BEHAVIOR RULES
The monumental complex of Santa Maria del Fiore is overall a place for the cult and the pray; visitors are asked to respect some simple behavior rules in respect of the place and the persons.The prepurchased tickets DOES NOT guarantee access or stay inside the monuments, if the behavior rules are not respected, especially the dressing code.

  • To use an adequate dressing: it's not allowed entrance with bare legs and shoulders
  • Please be quiet
  • Please turn your mobile phones off
  • Do not eat nor drink
  • Pets are not allowed
  • Works of art must not be touched
  • No smoking
  • Please don't use flash or tripod

Audioguide of the Museum of the Cathedral of Florence

ATTENTION: AUDIOGUIDES DESK MUSEO DELL'OPERA TEMPORARILY CLOSED; AUDIOGUIDES MUST BE PICKED UP AT AUDIOGUIDES DESK OF THE CATHEDRAL

Pick up: Audioguide Desk Museo dell'Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore (Piazza Duomo, 9) in the following hours:

  • from middle March to middle November: 10:00 - 16:00
  • from middle November to middle March: only holidays and long weekends, in the morning

Closed on Sundays

Closure without previous notice for masses, concerts and extraordinary events.

Available in 5 languages: English, Italian, French, German and Spanish.

Duration: around 2 hours.

Details

Museo dell'Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore

Inaugurated in 1891 on a project by Opera architect Luigi del Moro, renovated after the 1966 flood, and today with a layout dated December 1999, the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo must be considered one of the most important church museums in Italy. The present palazzo was built over a previous construction purchased in 1400.

Since the end of the 1800s, there has been an uninterrupted flow to the Museum of all of the works of art which, for reasons of conservation, have been removed from their outdoor location at Santa Maria del Fiore, the Baptistery and the Campanile.
The collection is therefore the most tangible testimony of a typically Florentine tradition of the plastic arts which formed in the various phases of the construction (building) of Santa Maria del Fiore and for centuries evolved.

A typical example is the affair of the first façade which remained in place until 1587 when the Grand Duke, advised by Bernardo Buontalenti as part of new town-planning program, had it demolished to replace it with a more modern project that was to reach its definitive version only in 1871. at her work sites.

This made it impossible to replace the original sculptures which are therefore still in the Museum. In the present ground floor layout, we thus find the originals of the statues by Arnolfo di Cambio for the first partial façade of the Cathedral, Ghiberti’s now restored original panels for the door of the Baptistery, the room with paintings with gold ground and the Relics Chapel, including the famous Reliquary of St. Paul’s Book. Climbing up the monumental staircase, we encounter the Museum’s jewel: the second of the three Pietas by Michelangelo.

On the second level, the Room of the Cantorias by Luca Della Robbia and Donatello, moved here from inside the Duomo, are among the most significant moments of Renaissance sculpture from both the architectural and sculptural points of view. Here too, we can admire the originals of the statues for the niches of the Campanile.

The adjoining room exhibits the hexagonal and lozenge-shaped panels of Giotto’s Campanile by Andrea Pisano, Alberto Arnoldi, Luca Della Robbia and others. Also part of the Museum collection are sixteenth and seventeenth-century sculptures of the Tuscan school, testimonies of the continuity of interest over the centuries for the realization of Santa Maria del Fiore. The new adjoining rooms exhibit the various wooden models of the cupola and the tools Filippo Brunelleschi used to build it.

Next to the room of the cantorias, we instead find the room of the Duomo’s treasury: liturgical furnishings including a series of reliquaries from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century, a processional cross, perhaps enameled by Luca Della Robbia, and several sixteenth-century hangings embroidered with gold. Donatello’s wooden Magdalene stands out in the middle of the room. The splendid Altar of San Giovanni, a masterpiece of Florentine goldsmithing (1366-1480), realized by artists like Michelozzo, Verrocchio, Antonio del Pollaiolo and Bernardo Cennini, and the Cross by Pollaiolo above it, were both created for the Baptistery.

Very important are the three Antiphonaries and a Gradual with sixteenth-century miniatures; they are four of the 58 codices that survived the 1966 flood. The upper floor is planned to host a learning center for the blind who will be able to follow a privileged route touching the statues; a learning area for children is planned for the future.

This new museum disposition, however, is temporary. A new Museum will indeed be born thanks to the recent acquisition of the adjoining building, the ex Teatro degli Intrepidi, also known to Florentines as the “Downtown Garage,” approximately two thousand square meters of exhibiting space that will serve to organize a more precise learning trail through these “living stones” of Florence.

Custodian and guarantor of these treasures, the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore attends to defending and maintaining the holy complex formed by the Duomo, Baptistery and Campanile, thanks to the work of the marble workers and stonemasons who work in its Bottega.

The Dome by Brunelleschi

Formed by two ogive-shaped interconnected domes, the octagonal cupola was built from 1418 to 1434 on the project that Filippo Brunelleschi presented at the 1418 competition and that was only accepted in 1420 after many contrasts. Dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore, the temple was consecrated on March 25th 1436.

Wonder of the world architecture, it's still a mystery of execution, because of the technical difficulties and its dimensions. During the visit, you will be able to admire the details of this work, created by the genius of Filippo Brunelleschi, that is still the largest dome built with bricks. The walkways, the corridors and the spiral staircases that take to the top of the panoramic terrace (92 meters), allow visitors to relive the suggestive sensations in a walk that take them back in time, inside a painting of over three thousand square meters of frescoed surface.

The cupola is 45.5 meters of diameter, the same as that of the entire Baptistery. Brunelleschi’s astonishing innovation was that of vaulting the cupola without a skeleton by means of using a double vault separated by an air space, the internal one of which (two meters thick) was made of herring-bone quoins and also had a structural function as it was self-supporting, while the external one was only a covering.

Over the Cupola rise the lantern with its cone-shaped covering on a design by Brunelleschi, realized after the artist’s death (1446), and the gilded copper ball with cross by Verrocchio which contains holy relics and was set in place in 1466

The fresco decoration of Brunelleschi’s cupola was realized between 1572 and 1579 by Giorgio Vasari and Federico Zuccari, and bears the same iconographic theme as the Baptistery: the Last Judgment. The frescoes in the cupola were subjected to global restoration between 1978 and 1994.

The Giotto's Bell Tower

Giotto’s bell tower is one of the four principal components of the Piazza del Duomo. 84.70 meters in height and about 15 meters wide, it is the most eloquent testimony of fourteenth-century Florentine Gothic architecture which, though with a vertical momentum, does not abandon the principle of solidity. It has angular reinforcements right up to the horizontally projecting coping.

Faced with white, red and green marbles like the Cathedral, the majestic square-base bell tower, considered the most beautiful in Italy – probably created more as a decorative rather than functional element – was begun by Giotto in 1334.

By his death in 1337, Giotto had only seen the realization of the first part of the project, up to the height of the hexagonal panels, a sort of figurative narration by Andrea Pisano on Giotto’s drawings, and the reliefs, originally on blue fields, by Andrea Pisano and Luca Della Robbia.

Continued by Andrea Pisano who completed the first two levels respecting Giotto’s project, the bell tower was embellished with the external lozenge-shaped decoration also with the intervention of Alberto Arnoldi.

The rich decorative apparatus of the hexagonal and lozenge panels expresses the concept of universal order and the story of Redemption. The reliefs begin with the Creation of man and continue with the representation of his activities, the Planets that regulate the course of his existence, the Virtues that strengthen him, the Liberal Arts that educate him and the Sacraments that sanctify him.

The statues merit separate mention. They were conceived more as integrating elements of the edifice rather than as decorative components.
On the second level, instead of bas-reliefs, Andrea Pisano inserted sixteen niches destined to contain figures of Kings and Sibyls and statues of the Patriarchs and Prophets, the latter of which were also executed by Nanni di Banco and Donatello, including the beautiful sculptural group of the Sacrifice of Isaac by Donatello which represents one of the loftiest conquests of fifteenth-century naturalism in sculpture. For conservational reasons, the originals of all of the sculptures are in the Museo dell’Opera. Above the second strip, Andrea Pisano made) sixteen more blind niches drawn on the marble.

Work was halted for two years, from 1348 to 1350, but the Campanile was completed in 1359, after the terrible years of the Black Death, by Francesco Talenti, ingenious creator of the large windows of the upper level, whose merits include the structure’s interaction with light, thanks to the Sienese style double mullioned windows and the large triple lancet windows, thus making the construction elegantly Gothic, though maintaining the classical composition of the whole. A large terrace situated at the top of more than 400 stairs and projecting outwards, forming a panoramic roof, is the last element we owe to Talenti who thus rejects Giotto’s project of the cuspidated spire roof.

The Baptistery of San Giovanni

With an octagonal plan, entirely faced with white and green marble slabs from Prato, the Baptistery is surmounted by a cupola with eight segments which rest on the perimetric walls, masked from the outside by raising the walls over the arches of the second level and by a roof with a flattened pyramidal form. This fascinating and extremely complex structure has created quite a few problems to date it.

In the Middle Ages, the Florentines believed the Baptistery to be ancient, dating to the city’s Roman period; a pagan temple transformed into a church. In effect, a good portion of the Baptistery’s marble facing, along with numerous fragments and ancient inscriptions, as well as the large columns supporting the trabeation over the doors inside, come from the ruins of the Roman ‘Florentia’, perhaps from some pagan building.

The Baptistery we see today is fruit of the enlargement of a primitive Baptistery dating to the IV-V century. The excavations of the past century have indeed revealed the remains of Roman constructions under both the Baptistery and the Duomo. Several grilles on the floor indeed light a subterranean area with the remains of a Roman house with geometric motif mosaicked floors.

In the early 1100s, San Giovanni was faced with splendid green and white marble that took the place of the previous sandstone. The third order with marble bays and the pyramidal roof with lantern were probably added between the middle and late XII century. In 1202, the ancient semicircular apse was replaced with today’s rectangular “scarsella”. In its entirety, the edifice is a fine expression of Romanesque architecture in the city.

In the second half of the XI century, the interior was lined with marble and, along with the monolithic columns and two sarcophagi, evokes the “gravitas” of the Roman Pantheon. The floor with its oriental-style marble intarsias abounds in elegant decorative motifs, making it resemble a carpet with zodiacal signs in bold relief. On the right wall of the apse inside, we see the sarcophagus of the Bishop Ranieri, which bears an inscription in Leonine hexameters, dated 1113; on the right of the apse, the sepulcher of Baldassarre Cossa, the anti-pope John XXIII, by Donatello and Michelozzo in 1421-27.

The decorative apparatus is completed by pairs of fonts on little tortile columns, a Gothic candelabrum attributed to a follower of Arnolfo, and a late fourteenth-century baptismal font attributed to a follower of Andrea Pisano. Let us also mention that most of the Baptistery furnishings, including Donatello’s Magdalene, are today housed in the Museo dell’Opera del Duomo.

The mosaic decoration of the interior was begun in the XIII century, lining the scarsella and the entire cupola, with interventions by Jacopo Torriti and, perhaps, by the new Florentine pictorial school: Cimabue and Coppo di Marcovaldo.
The mosaics are dominated by the enormous figure of a judging Christ with scenes of the Last Judgment occupying three of the eight segments of the cupola. The upper horizontal registers of the five remaining segments depict the stories of Saint John the Baptist, patron saint of Florence, and stories of Christ, Joseph and the Genesis. The highest register in the center of the cupola has depictions of the angelic hierarchies.

Under the patronage of the wealthy Calimala Guild (woolworkers), the Baptistery was also embellished with three beautiful bronze doors.

The oldest, the south door, was originally situated on the east and successively replaced with the one by Ghiberti, known as the “Door of Paradise”. It was originally commissioned from sculptor Andrea Pisano who created it between 1330 and 1336. Its twenty upper bays show episodes from the life of the Baptist, while the remaining eight portray the Christian Virtues. The frieze that frames them was sculpted in the mid fifteenth century by Vittorio Ghiberti, son of Lorenzo Ghiberti. The bronze sculptural group with the Baptist, his executioner and Salome, on the trabeation, is by Vincenzo Danti and dated 1570.

The north door was the next to be realized. It served as a test bed for the competition of 1401, won by Lorenzo Ghiberti, and resulting in the defeat of various artists, including Brunelleschi and Jacopo della Quercia. Substantially laid out like the south door, the twenty upper panels depict scenes of the New Testament, while the eight lower panels show the Evangelists and the four Fathers of the Church. The wings are decorated with stories from the life of Christ and are by Lorenzo Ghiberti, while the trabeation depicts the group of John the Baptist Preaching by Giovan Francesco Rustici. Above the window, the Calimala eagle holds the “torsello”.

Finally, the east door, that Michelangelo called the door of Paradise, is the by-now fully Renaissance masterpiece by Ghiberti and his assistants, including Luca della Robbia. Ghiberti and his workshop obtained the commission for the door without a competition. It was made differently from the other two and has only ten large panels. These illustrate scenes of the Old Testament and are no longer bordered by a Gothic frame, instead proposing new solutions in perspective and Donatello’s “stiacciato” style. The sculptures over the door, dated 1502, are by Andrea Sansovino and Innocenzo Spinazzi. Note also, on either side of the Door of Paradise, two porphyry columns donated to the Florentines by the Pisans for the military help given in 1117 against Lucca, while the Pisan fleet was engaged in the Balearic Islands against the Muslims.

The archaeological site of the crypt of Santa Reparata

A major excavation campaign beneath the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore conducted between 1965 and 1972 brought to light the remains of the ancient basilica of Santa Reparata, the most certain testimony of early Christianity in Florence, following the scarce information given by the excavations of Santa Felicita and the lack of documents on the primigenial cathedral of San Lorenzo.Today, just over two and a half meters separate us from the ancient early Christian basilica of Florence, restored several times, and also used for the meetings of the Parliament of the Republic before the construction of Palazzo Vecchio.

Santa Reparata was among the largest early Christian complexes of Tuscia, even more important bearing in mind its position in front of the Baptistery, eight meters forward with respect to the present Cathedral, however. The first Santa Reparata must have been open, luminous and similar to San Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, with elegant arches and marble columns. It had a nave and two aisles, with colonnades delimiting the nave and an enclosure separating the apsidal choir and area of worship from the area for the public, with an extension of the center walkway to distribute communion. Its construction probably originated from a vow made for the Christian victory over Goth king Radagasius in 405 circa.

Later reconstructed during the Carolingian epoch due to damage suffered in the Goth-Byzantine war, Santa Reparata maintained its previous layout with the addition of two lateral chapels in the apse area, a small crypt and a new floor, and can be imagined similar to the coeval abbatial church of Pomposa in Ferrara.

The years 1050-1106 mark the construction of a new raised choir and a new crypt where the body of Saint Zenobius, transferred from the old cathedral of San Lorenzo in the IX century, was kept until the 1440s when it was moved inside the new Cathedral.
Successive maintenance renovations kept Santa Reparata alive until 1379 when it was definitively demolished to make way for the new Cathedral. An image of Santa Reparata in this period can be seen today in the fresco in the Museo del Bigallo della Madonna della Misericordia.

We can rightfully claim that the remains of four churches lie beneath today’s Duomo: the original plus three reconstructions. Between the first and second pilasters on the right side of the nave inside the Duomo, are the stairs that descend to the excavations of the ancient Cathedral. The vast area, open to the public in 1974, contains numerous remains of the walls and floors of houses of the Roman “Florentia”. The floor bears the names of the 14 donors of Latin origin who financed the construction.

The floor is a fine sight to see, as it is formed by a beautiful polychrome mosaic with geometric decorations, including the motif of the cross, not dissimilar from the mosaic floors inside the Duomo of Aquileia. Also worthy of note is a beautiful peacock, symbol of immortality, one of the few remaining figurative elements.

A Florentine fresco of the mid XIV century that decorated the semicircular wall of the apse on the right, the work of a Giottesque painter of the mid 1300s, leads us to believe that, condemned to destruction and already inserted into the new Cathedral, Santa Reparata was still dear to the Florentines.

The numerous tombstones include the very beautiful stone of Lando di Giano, chaplain of Santa Reparata, who died in 1353, the stone of Niccolò Squarcialupi of 1313, that of Giovanni Di Alamanno de’ Medici who died in 1352, and perhaps, though not yet certain, even the tombs of two popes: Stephen IX and perhaps also Nicholas II, Bishop of Florence in 1058. In the course of the excavation campaign, the tomb of Filippo Brunelleschi was also found, while no trace remains of the tombs of Giotto, Arnolfo di Cambio or Andrea Pisano who, according to tradition, were also buried here.

Prices

Only full price tickets, no reductions available.